By T.K. Ghose ,A. Fiechter, N.Blakebrough
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Extra resources for Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 003
Ala~evi6 (1969a, 1973) worked with auxotrophic mutants of a tow-production standard strain, S. 970). Most of them had a decreased or practically nonexistent antibiotic activity but their products were not characterized in detail. A selective analysis of haploid recombinants obtained by four-point crosses showed a variety of recombinant phenotypes. In most cases an excess of prototrophs was obtained which distorted the results for the estimation of linkage relationships between genes. The main criterion used for the mapping was therefore based on data from heteroclone analysis.
Of the entire breadth of natural compounds produced by actinomycetes there are scant data only on the position of genetic loci controlling the biosynthesis of the zorbomycin complex (Coats and Roeser, 1971) and of one of the pigments of S. coelicolor (Hopwood, 1965). There is much more information on the biosynthetic steps, enzyme reactions and the genetic control of formation of such metabolites as amino acids or nucleotides which permits a rational approach to obtaining high-production strains and to developing high-yield technological procedures.
11 that in the following step, the biosynthetic pathway of tetracyclines is divided into two branches. The decisive step is a hydroxylation of ring A in position 4, followed by oxidation, hydration at Ca, and C12, and finally by chlorination in position 7. In the next step the tetracycline derivatives branch into two further routes (Fig. 12). On replacing the oxygen of ring A with an amino group, double N-methylation takes place and anhydrochlortetracycline is formed. The last biosynthetic steps are hydroxylation in position 6 and the final reduction which gives rise to CTC.